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Kuzma Ustinov
Kuzma Ustinov

Physics for Engineers 1 by Gias Uddin: Summary and Notes


Here is the outline of the article: # Physics for Engineers 1 by Gias Uddin: A Comprehensive Guide for Engineering Students - Introduction - What is physics for engineers 1 by gias uddin? - Why is it important for engineering students to learn physics? - What are the main topics covered in the book? - Waves and Oscillations - What are waves and oscillations? - What are the types and properties of waves? - What are the applications of waves and oscillations in engineering? - Properties of Matter - What are the properties of matter? - How do different states of matter behave under different conditions? - What are some examples of engineering materials and their properties? - Heat and Thermodynamics - What is heat and thermodynamics? - What are the laws and concepts of thermodynamics? - How do heat engines and refrigerators work? - Optics - What is optics? - What are the principles and phenomena of optics? - How do optical devices and instruments work? - Electricity and Magnetism - What is electricity and magnetism? - What are the sources and effects of electric and magnetic fields? - How do electric circuits and generators work? - Modern Physics - What is modern physics? - What are the discoveries and theories of modern physics? - How do modern physics affect engineering and technology? - Conclusion - Summarize the main points of the article - Emphasize the benefits of learning physics for engineers 1 by gias uddin - Provide some tips and resources for further study - FAQs - Who is the author of physics for engineers 1 by gias uddin? - Where can I buy or download physics for engineers 1 by gias uddin? - How can I prepare for exams based on physics for engineers 1 by gias uddin? - What are some other books on physics for engineers that I can read? - How can I contact the author or publisher of physics for engineers 1 by gias uddin? Here is the article based on the outline: # Physics for Engineers 1 by Gias Uddin: A Comprehensive Guide for Engineering Students ## Introduction Physics is the branch of science that deals with the nature and behavior of matter and energy. It is essential for engineering students to learn physics because it helps them understand the fundamental principles and concepts that underlie various engineering disciplines and applications. Physics also helps them develop critical thinking, problem-solving, and analytical skills that are useful for their future careers. One of the best books that can help engineering students learn physics is Physics for Engineers 1 by Gias Uddin. This book is written by Dr. Gias Uddin Ahmad, a professor of physics at Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET). He has a PhD in physics from Glasgow University, UK, and has over 40 years of teaching experience. He has also authored several other books on physics, such as Practical Physics, Physics for Engineers 2, Physics for Scientists, etc. Physics for Engineers 1 by Gias Uddin covers six major topics that are relevant for engineering students: waves and oscillations, properties of matter, heat and thermodynamics, optics, electricity and magnetism, and modern physics. Each topic is explained in a clear, concise, and comprehensive manner, with examples, diagrams, tables, graphs, exercises, and solutions. The book also follows the syllabus of various engineering universities in Bangladesh and abroad. In this article, we will provide a brief overview of each topic covered in Physics for Engineers 1 by Gias Uddin. We will also discuss some of the applications of these topics in engineering. By reading this article, you will gain a better understanding of what physics for engineers 1 by gias uddin is all about, why it is important for engineering students to learn it, and how it can help you in your studies and career. ## Waves and Oscillations Waves and oscillations are two phenomena that involve periodic motion or vibration of matter or energy. A wave is a disturbance that travels through a medium or space, transferring energy from one point to another. An oscillation is a repeated back-and-forth or up-and-down motion of an object or system around a fixed point or equilibrium. Some of the types and properties of waves are: - Mechanical waves: These are waves that require a material medium to propagate, such as sound waves, water waves, seismic waves, etc. - Electromagnetic waves: These are waves that do not require a medium to propagate, such as light waves, radio waves, microwaves, X-rays, etc. - Transverse waves: These are waves in which the particles of the medium vibrate perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation, such as light waves, water waves, etc. - Longitudinal waves: These are waves in which the particles of the medium vibrate parallel to the direction of wave propagation, such as sound waves, pressure waves, etc. - Standing waves: These are waves that do not travel but remain stationary in a fixed position, forming nodes and antinodes. They are formed when two identical waves traveling in opposite directions interfere with each other, such as in a string instrument, an organ pipe, etc. - Traveling waves: These are waves that travel from one place to another, carrying energy and information. They are formed when a source of disturbance produces a wave that propagates through a medium or space, such as in a radio transmission, a light beam, etc. Some of the properties of waves are: - Wavelength: This is the distance between two consecutive crests or troughs of a wave. It is denoted by the Greek letter lambda (λ). - Frequency: This is the number of complete cycles or oscillations that a wave makes in one second. It is denoted by the Greek letter nu (ν) and measured in hertz (Hz). - Amplitude: This is the maximum displacement or height of a wave from its equilibrium position. It is denoted by the letter A and measured in meters (m) or volts (V). - Velocity: This is the speed at which a wave travels through a medium or space. It is denoted by the letter v and measured in meters per second (m/s) or kilometers per hour (km/h). - Period: This is the time taken by a wave to complete one cycle or oscillation. It is denoted by the letter T and measured in seconds (s) or milliseconds (ms). - Phase: This is the position or state of a wave at any given instant. It is denoted by the Greek letter phi (φ) and measured in radians (rad) or degrees (). Some of the applications of waves and oscillations in engineering are: - Communication: Waves are used to transmit and receive information over long distances using devices such as radios, televisions, phones, satellites, etc. - Medicine: Waves are used to diagnose and treat various diseases and disorders using devices such as ultrasound machines, X-ray machines, MRI machines, etc. - Music: Waves are used to produce and record sounds using devices such as musical instruments, microphones, speakers, headphones, etc. - Navigation: Waves are used to locate and guide objects and vehicles using devices such as radar systems, sonar systems, GPS systems, etc. - Energy: Waves are used to generate and transfer energy using devices such as solar panels, wind turbines, hydroelectric dams, etc. ## Properties of Matter Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. Matter can exist in different states or phases depending on its temperature and pressure. The three common states of matter are solid, liquid, and gas. Matter can also exist in other states such as plasma, Bose-Einstein condensate, superfluids, etc. Some of the properties of matter are: - Density: This is the mass per unit volume of a substance. It is denoted by the Greek letter rho (ρ) and measured in kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3) or grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm3). - Elasticity: This is the ability of a substance to return to its original shape and size after being deformed by an external force. It is measured by the modulus of elasticity or Young's modulus (E), which is the ratio of stress to strain. - Plasticity: This is the ability of a substance to undergo permanent deformation without breaking when subjected to an external force. It is measured by the yield strength or yield point (Y), which is the maximum stress that a substance can withstand without undergoing plastic deformation. - Hardness: This is the resistance of a substance to being scratched or cut by another substance. It is measured by various scales such as Mohs scale, Brinell scale, Rockwell scale, etc. ## Heat and Thermodynamics Heat and thermodynamics are two related topics that deal with the transfer and transformation of energy in physical systems. Heat is a form of energy that flows from a higher temperature body to a lower temperature body. Thermodynamics is the branch of physics that studies the laws and principles that govern the behavior of heat and other forms of energy. Some of the laws and concepts of thermodynamics are: - Zeroth law of thermodynamics: This law states that if two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with a third body, then they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other. This law implies the existence of a universal property called temperature, which can be measured by a thermometer. - First law of thermodynamics: This law states that the change in internal energy of a system is equal to the heat added to the system minus the work done by the system. This law implies the conservation of energy principle, which states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but only converted from one form to another. - Second law of thermodynamics: This law states that the entropy of an isolated system always increases or remains constant in any spontaneous process. Entropy is a measure of disorder or randomness in a system. This law implies the directionality of natural processes, which states that heat flows spontaneously from hot to cold bodies, and not vice versa. - Third law of thermodynamics: This law states that the entropy of a pure crystalline substance at absolute zero temperature is zero. Absolute zero is the lowest possible temperature, where all molecular motion ceases. This law implies the unattainability of absolute zero, which states that it is impossible to reach absolute zero by any finite number of steps or processes. Some of the applications of heat and thermodynamics in engineering are: - Heat engines: These are devices that convert heat into mechanical work by exploiting the temperature difference between a hot source and a cold sink. Examples are steam engines, internal combustion engines, gas turbines, etc. - Refrigerators: These are devices that transfer heat from a low temperature body to a high temperature body by doing work on the system. Examples are refrigerators, air conditioners, heat pumps, etc. - Heat transfer: This is the process of transferring heat from one body to another by conduction, convection, or radiation. Examples are heat exchangers, fins, pipes, radiators, etc. - Thermodynamic cycles: These are sequences of processes that convert heat into work or vice versa by using a working fluid or substance. Examples are Carnot cycle, Rankine cycle, Otto cycle, Diesel cycle, etc. ## Optics Optics is the branch of physics that deals with the nature and behavior of light and its interaction with matter. Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation that has both wave and particle characteristics. Light can be reflected, refracted, diffracted, polarized, scattered, or absorbed by matter. Some of the principles and phenomena of optics are: - Reflection: This is the phenomenon where light bounces back from a surface at an angle equal to the angle of incidence. The law of reflection states that the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection. Reflection can be specular or diffuse depending on the smoothness or roughness of the surface. - Refraction: This is the phenomenon where light bends as it passes from one medium to another with different optical densities. The law of refraction or Snell's law states that the ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence to the sine of the angle of refraction is equal to the ratio of the refractive indices of the two media. Refraction can cause phenomena such as dispersion, total internal reflection, lenses, prisms, etc. - Diffraction: This is the phenomenon where light bends around obstacles or apertures and forms interference patterns. The degree of diffraction depends on the size of the obstacle or aperture relative to the wavelength of light. Diffraction can cause phenomena such as single-slit diffraction, double-slit diffraction, diffraction grating, etc. - Polarization: This is the phenomenon where light has a preferred direction or orientation of its electric field vector. Unpolarized light consists of randomly oriented electric field vectors. Polarized light can be linearly polarized (electric field vector oscillates in one plane), circularly polarized (electric field vector rotates in one direction), or elliptically polarized (electric field vector rotates in both directions). Polarization can be caused by reflection, refraction, scattering, absorption, or transmission through polarizing filters or materials. - Scattering: This is the phenomenon where light is deflected or dispersed by small particles or molecules in a medium. The amount and direction of scattering depend on the size, shape, and composition of the particles or molecules and the wavelength of light. Scattering can cause phenomena such as Rayleigh scattering, Mie scattering, Tyndall effect, etc. Some of the applications of optics in engineering are: - Optical devices and instruments: These are devices and instruments that use light to perform various functions such as imaging, measurement, communication, computation, etc. Examples are mirrors, lenses, prisms, cameras, telescopes, microscopes, spectrometers, lasers, fiber optics, etc. - Optical communication: This is the transmission and reception of information using light as the carrier signal. Examples are optical telegraphy, optical telephony, optical fiber communication, optical wireless communication, etc. - Optical computing: This is the use of light to perform logic operations and data processing. Examples are optical switches, optical logic gates, optical transistors, optical memory, optical neural networks, etc. - Optical engineering: This is the branch of engineering that deals with the design and development of optical systems and components. Examples are optical design, optical fabrication, optical testing, optical metrology, etc. ## Electricity and Magnetism Electricity and magnetism are two aspects of the same phenomenon: electromagnetism. Electricity is the flow of electric charge or current through a conductor or a circuit. Magnetism is the force or field that arises from the movement or alignment of electric charges or magnetic materials. Some of the sources and effects of electric and magnetic fields are: - Electric charge: This is a fundamental property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electric field. Electric charge can be positive or negative and is measured in coulombs (C). Electric charge can be transferred by contact, induction, or polarization. - Electric field: This is a region of space where an electric charge experiences a force. Electric field is represented by electric field lines that indicate the direction and strength of the force. Electric field is measured in newtons per coulomb (N/C) or volts per meter (V/m). - Electric potential: This is the amount of work done by an external agent to move a unit positive charge from infinity to a point in an electric field. Electric potential is measured in joules per coulomb (J/C) or volts (V). - Electric potential difference: This is the difference in electric potential between two points in an electric field. Electric potential difference is also known as voltage and is measured in volts (V). Electric potential difference causes electric current to flow in a conductor or a circuit. - Electric current: This is the rate of flow of electric charge through a conductor or a circuit. Electric current is measured in amperes (A) or coulombs per second (C/s). Electric current can be direct (DC) or alternating (AC) depending on the direction and frequency of the flow. - Electric resistance: This is the opposition to the flow of electric current through a conductor or a circuit. Electric resistance is measured in ohms (Ω). Electric resistance depends on factors such as length, cross-sectional area, temperature, and material of the conductor. - Ohm's law: This is a law that states that the electric current through a conductor or a circuit is directly proportional to the electric potential difference across it and inversely proportional to its electric resistance. Ohm's law can be expressed as V = IR, where V is the voltage, I is the current, and R is the resistance. - Electric power: This is the rate at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit. Electric power is measured in watts (W) or joules per second (J/s). Electric power can be calculated by multiplying voltage and current (P = VI) or by multiplying current and resistance (P = I2R). - Magnetic material: This is a material that has magnetic properties such as magnetization, permeability, susceptibility, etc. Magnetic materials can be classified into three types: diamagnetic (weakly repelled by a magnetic field), paramagnetic (weakly attracted by a magnetic field), and ferromagnetic (strongly attracted by a magnetic field and can retain magnetization). - Magnetic field: This is a region of space where a magnetic material or a moving electric charge experiences a force. Magnetic field is represented by magnetic field lines that indicate the direction and strength of the force. Magnetic field is measured in teslas (T) or newtons per ampere-meter (N/A-m). - Magnetic flux: This is the amount of magnetic field passing through a given area perpendicular to the field. Magnetic flux is measured in webers (Wb) or tesla-square meters (T-m2). - Magnetic flux density: This is the ratio of magnetic flux to area. Magnetic flux density is also known as magnetic induction or magnetic field strength and is measured in teslas (T). ## Electromagnetic Induction Electromagnetic induction is the phenomenon where an electric current or an electric potential is induced in a conductor or a circuit by a changing magnetic field. This phenomenon was discovered by Michael Faraday in 1831 and is the basis of many applications of electromagnetism. Some of the concepts and effects of electromagnetic induction are: - Faraday's law of induction: This law states that the induced electromotive force (emf) or voltage in a loop of wire is equal to the rate of change of magnetic flux through the loop. Magnetic flux is the product of magnetic field and area perpendicular to the field. Faraday's law can be expressed as ε = -dΦ/dt, where ε is the emf, Φ is the magnetic flux, and t is the time. - Lenz's law: This law states that the direction of the induced current or emf in a loop of wire is such that it opposes the change in magnetic flux that causes it. Lenz's law can be derived from the conservation of energy principle, which states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, but only converted from one form to another. - Motional emf: This is the emf induced in a conductor or a circuit that moves relative to a magnetic field. Motional emf can be calculated by multiplying the magnetic field, the length of the conductor, and the velocity perpendicular to the field. Motional emf can be expressed as ε = BLv, where B is the magnetic field, L is the length of the conductor, and v is the velocity. - Induced electric field: This is the electric field that is created by a changing magnetic field and that drives an induced current or emf in a conductor or a circuit.


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